Descartes is one of the founding fathers of Western science. And the conversion from medieval scholasticism to Cartesian dualism propelled science dramatically.
The great impasse in empirical science was reached early in the 20th century when quantum mechanics was first being developed.
The fundamental flaw in the conventional approach to understanding life is that we think we can fully understand the whole by looking at the individual parts.
The originators of the concept were two 19th-century British philosopher-scientists, John Stuart Mill and George Henry Lewes.
Scientists have learned over the centuries that when a fundamental theoretical impasse is encountered, we do not blame nature.